Currying and Partial Application in F#

Currying is one of those subjects that continually seems to slip out of the back of my brain when I’m not looking. So I figured the best course of action would be to put my reasoning on the subject somewhere more permanent.

So, currying…

F#, not uniquely among functional programming languages, has origins in lambda calculus. One of the core tenets of this school of mathematical thought is “functions take one value and return one value”.

So consider the following function declaration in F#. Two inputs, one output. Is this breaking the rules of lambda calculus?

let add x y = x + y

The answer is no (of course). When the above method is declared, what actually gets created by the compiler is a chain of functions, each with a single argument. This under-the-hood legwork allows functions with multiple inputs to be declared in a nice, syntactically clean way, while the code still holds true to the fundamental rules. And this general process, in which a function with multiple arguments is transformed into a chain of single-argument functions, is referred to as currying. (Named for Haskell Curry, of course. There, saves you a trip to wikipedia…)

More detail? OK.

We can agree that the outerAdd function shown below does indeed meet the rule of one in, one out.

let outerAdd x = 
    let innerAdd y = 
        x + y

We can also agree that the outerAdd and add functions both have the same signature.

Wait - you don’t agree? Then throw them both into FSI, and let’s compare:

val outerAdd : x:int -> (int -> int)

val add : x:int -> y:int -> int

The outerAdd function takes one thing: a single int parameter (named x), and returns one thing: another function. And that function itself takes a single int parameter, and returns a single int parameter.

The add function actually does the same - it has been automatically curried into a form that satisfies that basic tenet of lambda syntax. One argument in, one argument out.

The signatures expose the underlying transformation. The -> symbol, that’s a function declaration delimiter. Any time you see it in F# code, it means a function is being declared; the type immediately to the left of it is the type of the input parameter to the function, and everything to the right is the output. (Yes, the parentheses are missing from the add signature, but since the function declaration delimiter is right associative, it works the same with or without braces.)

Great. Wait, why is this great again?

Partial application!

Well, for one thing, the fact that F# internally curries your functions leads to the concept of partial application. This allows us to pass an incomplete set of arguments to a function, and partially execute that function using those arguments. This results in a new function being returned to the caller.

let add1 = outerAdd 1

As we know, when we run the outerAdd function, we will get a function as the return value (which is actually the innerAdd function, with the x argument fixed to 1 in the outer scope).

When we run this resulting function (at a later time), it will demand the remaining argument, and will add it to the fixed value.

So here’s the good bit: because the original add function is actually being curried for us, we’re free to partially apply it, and get a function that’s identical to innerAdd:

let add1' = add 1

And this extends to functions with any number of arguments - you can fix these arguments, in order left-to-right, to produce new functions.

How handy!

Partial application can make code a lot cleaner, and increase reuse and readability. It’s also used a lot when working with collections.

let incBy x y = x + y
let ints = [1..10]

If we wished to apply incBy to ints as a means of increasing each value in the list by 1, we could do this as follows:

|> (fun x -> incBy 1 x)

The first argument supplied to needs to be a function that takes a single argument. So we can satisfy this by passing a lambda expression that calls incBy. This accomodates the two-argument signature of incBy and satisfies the requirement of

However, the use of lambda syntax could distract a little from the purpose of the code. We can use partial application to clarify things:

|> (incBy 1)

The partially applied incBy returns a function that is suitable for supplying as the first argument to, so there’s no need to define a lambda expression any more.

You could simplify further by defining a symbol for the partially applied function instead:

let incBy1 = incBy 1

|> incBy1

Or indeed, by partially applying the operation itself:

let mapIncBy1 = incBy1

|> mapIncBy1

Alright, that example code was already very simple, and didn’t really need a lot of clarifying in the first place! But when it comes to learning a language (or anything else), if you really understand how the basic stuff works, it makes it easier to concentrate on the complicated stuff!

Other resources

That’s about it. There are many terrific resources around that go into a lot more detail than this. Here’s a few:

For all things F#, Scott Wlaschin’s fsharpforfunandprofit is basically the online bible!

In particular, his article on currying covers some other aspects and gotchas not touched on here.

Also, follow this link for a great write-up of partial application and currying in JavaScript.

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